Public health authorities on Thursday Island, in the Torres Strait off far north Queensland, will screen all island children for a highly contagious skin infection.
An outbreak of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis was declared late last week with two cases confirmed so far.
Queensland Health says the infection is easily treated using antibiotics but can cause kidney failure if untreated.
It says children aged between one and 17 are most at risk.
Doctors and nurses will visit all of the island's schools and childcare centres tomorrow.
Queensland Health says good personal hygiene will help curb the spread of the infection.