Canadian investigative reporter Declan Hill said he is not surprised international match-fixing rings have infiltrated a lower tier Australian football league.
Hill, who has been studying the global growth in match-fixing for more than a decade, said international criminal networks have just about ruined most sports in Asia.
Reacting to from the Victorian Premier League team - the Southern Stars in an international match-fixing syndicate, Hill said there are other examples of match-fixing of lower tier competitions.
It has been alleged that four Victorian Premier League matches involving the Southern Stars may have been fixed.
Police have identified more than $2 million in betting winnings from a syndicate that is believed to be instigated by Singapore national Wilson Raj Perumal who is based in Hungary.
Most of the bets on Southern Stars games had been placed with Asian bookmakers. Two Southern Stars players charged by Victorian police are British citizens Joe Wooley and Reiss Noel.
Hill, whose book The Fix has been published in 20 languages, said it is a familiar pattern.
"We bring in players from another jurisdiction, and you basically command them to win or lose on command," Hill explained.
"It's a paradigm that we've seen around the world."
"We've got a league over here in Canada called the Canadian Soccer League which is not even our first, second, or even third division. And they fixed a match a number of years ago."
"And it was literally watched by at most 100 people."
Hill said the Asian betting market amounts to hundreds of billions of dollars.
"Asian gambling markets have pretty well ruined most sports in Asia," Hill said.
"Pakistani cricket, Japanese sumo wrestling, Taiwanese baseball. Pretty much every sport you can think of in South Korea's been hit. And most of the football leagues across that continent."
"Yet there are a few honourable exceptions. So that massive market ranges from $92 billion to $1 trillion is now looking for different events to place their bets on. And they're turning to Canadian soccer, they're turning to Icelandic soccer, they're turning to Australian football matches.
"And this is the problem."